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Nikifor Seliverstov
Nikifor Seliverstov


Objective and importance: Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks have been noted occasionally at multiple sites in the same patient, but recurrent spontaneous spinal CSF leaks have not been documented. We describe a patient with a recurrent CSF leak who was found at surgery to have an absence of the entire nerve root sleeve at multiple thoracic levels.



Clinical presentation: A 29-year-old woman bodybuilder noted an excruciating orthostatic headache associated with nausea. The neurological examination was unremarkable, and a magnetic resonance imaging examination showed the typical changes of intracranial hypotension. Computed tomographic myelography showed an extensive bilateral lower cervical CSF leak.

Intervention: The patient underwent bilateral lower cervical nerve root explorations, and several small dural holes were found. The CSF leaks were repaired, but 3 months later, computed tomographic myelography showed a new CSF leak in the midthoracic area. A thoracic laminectomy was performed, and several nerve roots were found to be completely devoid of dura. After the CSF leaks were repaired, there was significant improvement in her headaches.

Conclusion: A recurrent spontaneous spinal CSF leak may occur in patients with intracranial hypotension at a site previously documented not to be associated with a CSF leak. Absent nerve root sleeves may be found in patients with spontaneous spinal CSF leaks ("nude nerve root" syndrome), and these patients may be at increased risk of developing a recurrent CSF leak.

Ahhh, another former Disney star had their photos LEAKED. If you are wondering if the Dylan Sprouse nude leaks are real, they certainly are! Not only does The Suite Life of Zack & Cody actor admit the naughty selfies are authentic, he is proud of them. Yep, he even went on Twitter to publicly confirm his dick pics.

It is not a knock on anyone that does that. It is just a preference that I never want to do and also because I had such a traumatic experience with the picture that got leaked and that was really hard on me.

Spiranac refers to a picture that was leaked by an ex-partner to his friends, and before long the image had circulated beyond control, with Spiranac having to face a barrage of messages from strangers that had seen the image.

On August 31, 2014, a collection of nearly five hundred private pictures of various celebrities, mostly women, with many containing nudity, were posted on the imageboard 4chan, and swiftly disseminated by other users on websites and social networks such as Imgur and Reddit. The leak has been popularly dubbed "The Fappening" and also "Celebgate". The images were initially believed to have been obtained via a breach of Apple's cloud services suite iCloud,[1][2] or a security issue in the iCloud API which allowed them to make unlimited attempts at guessing victims' passwords.[3][4] Apple claimed in a press release that access was gained via spear phishing attacks.[5][6]

"The Fappening" is a jocular portmanteau coined by combining the words "fap", an internet slang term for masturbation, and the title of the 2008 film The Happening. Though the term is a vulgarism originating either with the imageboards where the pictures were initially posted or Reddit, mainstream media outlets soon adopted the term themselves, such as the BBC.[7][8] The term has received criticism from journalists like Radhika Sanghani of The Daily Telegraph and Toyin Owoseje of the International Business Times,[9] who said that the term not only trivialized the leak, but also, according to Sanghani, "[made] light of a very severe situation." Both articles used the term extensively to describe the event, including in their headlines.[10]

The hacker responsible for the leak, who described themselves as being a "collector", distributed the leaked images on the image boards 4chan and Anon-IB in exchange for Bitcoin.[16][17] Ultimately, the images were widely circulated online via other channels, including Imgur and Tumblr. Celebrity gossip blogger Perez Hilton also re-posted some of the photos on his blog, but soon took them down and issued an apology, saying "he had acted in bad taste".[18][19]

The original release contained photos and videos of more than 100 individuals that were allegedly obtained from file storage on hacked iCloud accounts,[27] including some the leakers claimed were A-list celebrities.[28][29] Shortly after the photos were leaked, several affected celebrities issued statements either confirming or denying the photos' authenticity.[30][31] Celebrities who confirmed the photos' authenticity include Jennifer Lawrence (confirmed by her publicist),[32] Kate Upton and her husband Justin Verlander (confirmed by Upton's lawyer),[33][34][35] Mary Elizabeth Winstead (confirmed via Twitter),[36][37] Jessica Brown Findlay (confirmed by spokesman),[38] Kaley Cuoco (confirmed via Instagram),[39][40] and Kirsten Dunst, who also criticized the iCloud service.[41] Jill Scott confirmed on Twitter that one of the leaked photos was of her while stating that another was fake.[42]

Celebrities who denied the photos' authenticity include Ariana Grande[43][44] and Yvonne Strahovski.[45] Olympic gymnast McKayla Maroney initially denied the images' authenticity on Twitter,[46][47] but later confirmed the photos were legitimate while also saying she was underage when they were taken.[24] Victoria Justice denied the photos were authentic but later stated on Twitter that she was pursuing legal action and found the leak to be a massive invasion of not just her privacy, but of the privacy of all celebrities affected by the incident.[43][48] Reports in October indicated that Nick Hogan was the first male star to be directly targeted by hackers; however, Hogan denied the pictures' authenticity.[49]

On September 20, 2014, a second batch of similar private photos of additional celebrities was leaked by hackers.[52] On September 26, 2014, a third batch was also leaked,[53] which was dubbed "The Fappening 3".[54]

Actress Lena Dunham pleaded on Twitter for people not to view the photos, arguing that in doing so "you are violating these women over and over again. It's not okay."[55] Actress Emma Watson condemned not only the leak but "the accompanying comments [on social media] that show such a lack of empathy."[56] Actors Seth Rogen and Lucas Neff also spoke out against the hackers and people who posted the pictures.[57] Justin Verlander, then a pitcher for the Detroit Tigers, told the media prior to a game against the Cleveland Indians that he keeps his private life private and would rather focus on the Tigers' race with the Kansas City Royals for the AL Central title than be a distraction to his teammates.[58] Security analysts have stated that the breach could have been prevented through the use of two-factor authentication,[59] while a Forbes writer recommended completely shutting down the iCloud "Photo Stream" feature (which automatically uploads photos taken with an iOS device to iCloud servers).[60]

In an interview with The Wall Street Journal, Apple CEO Tim Cook stated that in response to the leak, the company planned to take additional steps to protect the privacy and security of iCloud users in the future.[13] Notifications will be provided whenever data is restored to a device via iCloud and after logging into iCloud via a web browser,[61] in addition to existing notifications when a user's iCloud password is changed. Additionally, Apple will broaden and encourage the use of two-factor authentication in future versions of its software and operating systems, such as the then-upcoming iOS 8. In conclusion, he emphasized that "we want to do everything we can do to protect our customers, because we are as outraged if not more so than they are."[13]

Jennifer Lawrence contacted authorities and her publicist stated that the authorities would prosecute anyone who posted leaked images of her.[62] Forbes columnist Joseph Steinberg questioned whether the reactions by law enforcement and technology providers indicated that celebrities were being treated differently from ordinary Americans, which, in the case of law enforcement, may be illegal.[63]

On October 1, 2014, Google was threatened with a $100 million lawsuit by lawyer Martin Singer on behalf of unnamed victims of the leak, alleging that Google had refused to respond to requests for the images to be removed from its platforms (including Blogger and YouTube), "[failing] to act expeditiously, and responsibly to remove the images", and "knowingly accommodating, facilitating, and perpetuating the unlawful conduct".[64][65]

In an interview with Vanity Fair, victim Jennifer Lawrence called the leak a "sex crime" and a "sexual violation"; she added, "Anybody who looked at those pictures, you're perpetuating a sexual offense. You should cower with shame."[66] This view was contrasted by another victim of the leak, Emily Ratajkowski, who told GQ, "A lot of people who were victims of [the hack] said anyone who looks at these pictures should feel guilty, but I just don't think that's fair", and "I'm not sure that anyone who Googles it is necessarily a criminal. I think the people who stole the photos are".[67]

The FBI said it was "aware of the allegations concerning computer intrusions and the unlawful release of material involving high profile individuals, and is addressing the matter."[68] Similarly, Apple stated that it had been investigating whether a security breach of the iCloud service was responsible for the leaked photographs, as per the company's commitment to user privacy.[59][69] On September 2, 2014, Apple reported that the leaked images were the result of compromised accounts, using "a very targeted attack on user names, passwords and security questions, a practice that has become all too common on the Internet".[5][6]

Emilio Herrera, also from Chicago, had first been named in the press in 2014;[70] he pleaded guilty to one count of unauthorized access to a protected computer to obtain information in October 2017. Herrera had accessed the accounts of unnamed celebrities and others but was not accused of being involved in leaking or sharing the photos and videos he obtained.[79] He was sentenced to 16 months in jail in March 2018.[80] 041b061a72


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